Globalization and higher education: Changing trends in cross border education

N. V. Varghese



Globalization is a market-driven process and it stems from a belief that markets play a more important role than the State in development. Knowledge-based production has become the distinguishing characteristic of globalized economies. The intellectual capital produced by universities and research institutions has become a crucial factor of production in a globalized knowledge economy. Technological developments, especially in information technology transformed the way the world economy is organized and the way higher education is provided. This paper analyzes the effects of globalization on higher education on the one hand and trends in globalization of higher education on the other. It categorizes the globalization of higher education into three distinct, but related, phases. The first phase experienced a surge in cross-border student flow, the second phase saw the development of education hubs and branch campuses, and the third and the most recent phase witnessed program mobility and is revolutionized by the massification of online courses such as Massive Open Online Courses.


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